Headings & References
29 July 2006
HIERARCHY OF HEADINGS
If fewer than five levels of headings
are needed, any of the following may be omitted, but the ones used must follow
- Centered, underlined or boldface, capitalized
- Centered, not underlined or in bold, capitalized
- Left side heading, underlined or boldface, caps-headline
- Left side heading, not underlined or bold, capitalized sentence
style - eg: The Gospel as it related to Jesus.
- Run into paragraph & underlined or in boldface, cap. sentence style
eg: The gospel legalized in the Church. The gospel that....
WHAT NEEDS A REFERENCE?
Students often struggle with when and how to document outside materials they
incorporate into research papers. The rules are new and sornetirnes confusing
when first encountered. To provide some practice applying the principles, here
are some examples that are at the same time familiar, perhaps a tad bit funny,
and very instructive.
- Do not document:
- Your own ideas about what you read
- Minor details
- Your own editorializing
- Do document:
- All quotations
- All paraphrases
- All ideas you learned from someone else
- Facts from the reading that you are using to make an argument concerning
how to interpret the text
- Segments of the text that support the argument you are trying to make
or provide the grounds for your editorial remarks
- Cases where you are not sure whether or not they require documentation
What It is and How to Recognize and Avoid It
Evaluate each of the following statements about "Cinderella." Which
statements should be documented and which do not need to be? Which of the reasons
above provide(s) the best grounds for why that statement should or should not
- I think the Prince saved Cinderella in the nick of time.
- The eldest sister wanted to wear her French-trimmed, red velvet suit to
- Cinderella was a young girl of unparalleled goodness and sweetness of temper.
- Cinderella and the Prince fell in love at the ball.
- The stepmother is an obvious paranoid.
- The Godmother changed “six mice into six horses, a rat into a fine coachman,
and six lizards into footmen.”
- In the end, Cinderella forgives her sisters and finds them husbands.
- The stepmother's major personality traits are pride and haughtiness.
- Cinderella leaves the ball just before midnight.
- The first persons to try on the glass slipper were the princesses and the
- When Cinderella asks to go to the ball, the sisters claim, "It would
make the people laugh."
- Cinderella was a good counselor because she had excellent ideas, advised
others for the best, and willingly proffered her services.
SAMPLE CITATIONS & BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES
Note that state abbreviations are the older, fuller abbreviations (not the
two-letter ones currently used for surface mail), and that consecutive page
numbers and years are indicated with an en-dash rather than a hyphen. Also,
the use of ff to indicate page numbers, chapters, or verses in a series is no
longer permitted; inclusive page, chapter, or verse numbers should be used.
- Footnote of Journal Article:
- G. S. P. Freeman-Grenville, "The Date of the Outbreak of Montanism,"
Journal of Ecclesiastical History 5 (1954): 7.
- Reference to Article within a Book:
- See Kirsopp Lake, "Introduction," Eusebius: the Ecclesiastical
History (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press; London: William
Heinemann, 1926), xix–xxiv.
- Reference to a motion picture:
- The Greatest Story Ever Told, 65 mm, 199 min., Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Studios, Hollywood, 1965.
- If you actually took your material from a videocassette recording or DVD
rather than the original film, then the information concerning the tape/DVD
also needs to be documented.
- The Greatest Story Ever Told (2 DVD set), produced and directed
by George Stevens, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Home Entertainment, Santa Monica,
Calif., 2001, MGM-DVD 4001800, English with French and Spanish subtitles;
digitally remastered from original 65 mm film, 199 min., Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Studios, Hollywood, 1965.
- Indirect Reference (with Notice of Short Title):
- Matthias Flacius et alii, Historia Ecclesia Christi
(Magdeburg: 1559–1574), Cent. II, 103–106, 158; cited by G.
Nathanael Bonwetsch, Die Geschichte des Montanismus (Erlangen:
Andreas Deichert, 1881), 2, henceforth cited as Geschichte.
- Note of more than one reference on the topic:
- See Leske, "Montanism," Lutheran Theological Journal 15 (1981):
80; A. Daunton-Fear, "The Ecstasies of Montanus," Studia Patristica
17, No. 2, ed. Elizabeth A. Livingstone (Oxford, etc.: Pergamon, 1982):
- Note of a previously cited source:
- Froehlich, "Montanism and Gnosis," 99–103.
- Annotated Footnotes:
- For a brief but more recent discussion of the evidence, see Johannes
Quasten, Patrology, Volume III: The Golden Age of Greek Patristic
Literature from the Council of Nicaea to the Council of Chalcedon
(Westminster, Md.: Christian Classics, 1984; first published in Utrecht,
Holland: Spectrum, 1950), 315.
- Footnote to a Volume in a Series:
- Compare the view of Agostino Faggiotto, who earlier had argued that
the Montanist prophesy is of the same nature as that in the Apocalypse;
A. Faggiotto, L'eresia dei Frigi: Fonti e frammenti. (Scrittori
Cristiani Antichi 9; Rome: 1924) 17–18.
- Daunton-Fear, A. "The Ecstasies of Montanus." Studia Patristica
17, No. 2. Ed. Elizabeth A. Livingstone. Oxford, etc.: Pergamon, 1982. 648–51.
- The Greatest Story Ever Told. 65 mm, 199 min. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Studios, Hollywood, 1965.
- The Greatest Story Ever Told. 2 DVD set. Produced and directed
by George Stevens. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Home Entertainment, Santa Monica, Calif.,
2001. MGM-DVD 4001800. English with French and Spanish subtitles. Digitally
remastered from original 65 mm film, 199 min. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios,
- McGinn, Sheila E., ed. Celebrating Romans: Template for Pauline Theology.
Essays in Honor of Robert Jewett. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2004.
- McGinn, Sheila E. “Feminist Approaches to Paul’s Letter to the
Romans.” In Celebrating Romans: Template for Pauline Theology. Essays
in Honor of Robert Jewett. Ed., Sheila E. McGinn. Grand Rapids, Mich.:
Eerdmans, 2004. 165–76.
- McGinn, Sheila E., trans. “Justification as Good News for Women: A
Re-reading of Romans 1–8.” Translation from the Spanish of Elsa
Tamez, “La Justificacíon como Buena Nueva Para las Mujeres:
Relectura de Romanos 1–8.” In Celebrating Romans: Template
for Pauline Theology. Essays in Honor of Robert Jewett. Ed., Sheila E.
McGinn. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2004. 177–89.
- Quasten, Johannes. Patrology, Volume III: The Golden Age of Greek Patristic
Literature from the Council of Nicaea to the Council of Chalcedon. Westminster,
Md.: Christian Classics, 1984. First published in Utrecht, Holland: Spectrum,
Other resources for how to document your sources: